Kuladevata
 
 

The concept of God is the outcome of a constant feeling of a dire need for strong psychological support system to protect from or to get rid of feeling of social, physical and financial insecurity experienced by the individuals of a society, which is normally busy in the daily struggle for own survival. After all, the concept of ‘Mind’ is nothing but the ability to think. A confused and weak mind loses its ability of rational thinking. Here is where the concept of ‘God’ comes to the rescue. Achieving the stability and concentration of mind is possible by remembering and worshiping the God (or the supernatural power as some would like to put it). This process, supplemented by intellectual thinking, does lead to acquiring confidence to tackle any adversity in life. The concept of different gods among Hindus has probably originated from the need for such support at different levels. Hence the three layered concept of ‘Ishta Devata’ to protect the family, ‘Kul Devata’ to protect a clan, and ‘Gram Devata’ to protect the entire village/ city.’

 
   
  Practice among Chitpavans  
 

 The concept of Kul Devata is prevalent not only among the ‘Chitpavan’s of Maharashtra. It is widely accepted concept among most ‘Hindu’ castes. ‘Kul Swami’ is the one who protects the ‘Kul’ (Clan). ‘Chitpavan’s are worshipers of Lord ‘Shiv’ and Lord ‘Vishnu’. Most of the other ‘Kul Deaivat’s of Chitpavans are situated in the place of their primitive settlement i.e. in Konkan in Maharashtra. Surprisingly however, the deity ‘Parshuram’ who was supposedly the originator of the ‘Chitpavan’s is not the ‘Kul Daivat’ of any ‘Kul’. Although most of the ‘Chitpavan’ ‘Kul’s have ‘Lord Shiva’ as their ‘Kul Daivat’, some others also have ‘Lord Vishnu’, ‘Lord Ganesh’ and ‘Sun god’ as their ‘Kul Daivat’s. ‘Chitpavan’s being intellectuals, quickly adapted to the changing social structure and advancements in industrial sector at the start of the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War. The sources to earn their living changed to various professions, government and private service, business rather than ‘Bhikshuki’ (performers of religious rituals) or ‘Vidyadan’ (educators of the society). The urge for prosperity and comforts of life by better earning, led to migration to the cities and industrial hubs. Consequently the religious rituals were rarely performed and were relegated to oblivion.

This, made it even more mandatory to collect the information about the various traditions and family and religious rituals from very few such individuals knowing them and were alive. The Kulavruttants of various Chitpavan clans have precisely done this and have documented the information to make it available to the next generations if and when they are in need of it. Over a period, the information may have been lost or even distorted a bit e.g. Vadeshwar - Vyadeshwar, Jaitveer-Jaiteer, Varadayini-Vardan cardhini etc, however the efforts of refinement and updation of such information are still vigorously on.

 
 
 
     
  Practice among Marathes  
 

15 ‘Gharani’ from Karnataka out of total 96 of ‘Marathe’s are not aware of their ‘Kuldaivat’. Out of the remaining, the tally of ‘Kuladaivat’s and the number ‘Gharani’s worshipping it is as follows:

  • ‘Vyadeshwar’ (of Guhagar) : -  14
  • ‘Jogeshwari’ (of Ambegav) : -  14
  • ‘Mahalaxmi’ (of Kolhapur) :-     30
  • Not known :-                        23

However many of them could name the ‘Gramdevata’s to whom a ‘Naivedya’ is offered yearly. The list of such ‘Gramdevata’s is given below. Marathe’s offer ‘Naivedya’ on the days of ‘Falguni-Paurnima’ and ‘Shravani-Somvar’ apart from Dev-diwali. Some rituals (‘Aachar’s) listed below are performed by the number of Gharani’s mentioned against each. ‘

  •  Bodan’ :- Almost all.
  • ‘Navratra in Ashvin’:- Almost all except those from districts of ‘Ratnagiri and ‘Sindhudurg’. These people perform these rituals in the temples of the village rather than in homes.
  • ‘Khandobachi Tali Bharane’ :-          4/5 ‘Gharani’s especially the ones who have settled in the ‘Western Maharashtra (Desh) region after migrating from Kokan.
  • ‘Gondhal’ :-                                       12/13 ‘gharani.
  • ‘Girichya Vyankobache Parane’ :-    2/3 of them.
  • ‘Ganapati Festivity in Bhadrapad’ :-  Almost all except 1/2.

Chakradevs have a single Gharane who worship ‘Vyadeshwar’ (Guhagar), ‘Jogeshwari’ (Ambe), ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur), ‘Sarveshwar’ (Kurdhe), ‘Ravalnath’, ‘Adityanath’, ‘Vastupurush’, ‘Mahapurush’, ‘Gavrakha’, ‘Pavnai’ and offer ‘Naivedya’. ‘Naivedya’ is also performed on the days of Flaguni Paurnima’ ‘Dhulvad’ and ‘Gudhipadwa’,. They also follow the rituals of ‘Bodan’ and ‘Ashvin Navratra’.

Jaeels have a single Gharane who worship ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur), ‘Vyadeshwar’ (Guhagar), ‘Bahiri’, ‘Kshetrapal’, ‘Dumdev’, ‘Chimadevi’, ‘Ganapati’ and ‘Vastupurush’ and offer ‘Naivedya’. The rituals of ‘Bodan’and ‘Ashvin Navratra are also followed. 

The 3 Gharani of Joshis worship Satyeshwar’, ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur), ‘Mahasaraswati’, ‘Jaindev’, ‘Jugai’, ‘Mahakali’, ‘Valeshwar’, ‘Nagareshwar’, ‘Ravalnath’ (Adivare), ‘Brfahmadev’, ‘Gangobharadi’, ‘Rameshwar’, ‘Someshwar’, ‘Shantadurga’, ‘Kalbhairav’, ‘Bhavai’ and ‘Brahmandev’ (hindale) and offer ‘Naivedya’, The ritual of ‘Gondhal is followed in ‘Adivare’ gharane. 

Kambetes have 8 ‘gharani’ who worship ‘Adityanath’, ‘Koleshwar’, ‘Jakhai’, ‘jokhai’ (Kolthare), ‘Laxmi-Keshav’ (Turvade), ‘Mahalaxmi’, ‘Bahiri’ (Kelshi). ‘Darvathkarin’ (Burondi), ‘Salkay’, ‘Golkay’ on ‘Devdiwali’ and offer ‘Naivedya’. Some also offer ‘Naivedya’ on days of ‘Balipratipada’, ‘Flaguni Paurnima’, and ‘Dhulvad’. They also follow the rituals of ‘Bodan’ and ‘Ashvin Navratra’.

The 2 Gharani of Ratates worship ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur), ‘Vyaghreshwar’, ‘Panhalja’, ‘Pangulja’, ‘Bahiri’, ‘Vindhyavasini’ (ravtale) and offer ‘Naivedya’. Rituals like ‘Bodan’, ‘Ashvin Navratra’ are also followed. Ratate from Kashi follow ritual of ‘Balajiche Parne’. 

The Vidwans have 4 gharani and worship ‘Jogeshwari’, ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur), ‘Vyaghreshwar (aasud), ‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kelshi), ‘KAlbhairav’ (Bamnoli), ‘Jeevaneshwar’ (Shrivardhan), ‘Harihareshwar’ (Hareshwar), ‘Vishnu’, ‘Shankar’, ‘Bahiri’ etc. They offer ‘Naivedya’ on days of Devdiwali, ‘Flaguni Paurnima’. They also follow rituals of ‘Ashvin Navratra’ and ‘Bodan’. 

 

 
 
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  Kulswamini  
 

Jogeshwari (Ambejogai),
‘Tuijabhavani’ (Tuljapur),
‘Durgadevi’ (Guhagar),
‘Mahalaxmi’ (Kolhapur),
‘Mahakali’ (Adivare),
Mahalaxmi (Kelshi)
 

 
 
Durgadevi (Guhagar)
Jogeshwari (Ambejogai)
Mahakali (Adivare)
Mahalaxmi (Kelshi)
Mahalaxmi (Kolhapur)
Tuijabhavani (Tuljapur)
 
     
  Kulswami:  
 

Adityanath (Nevre),
Koleshwar (Kolthare),
Shri. Balaji-Vyankatesh (Tirupati),
Vyadeshwar (Guhagar),
Vyghreshwar (Aasud),
Shri Vetal (Aajgaon)
 

 
 
Adityanath (Nevre)
Koleshwar (Kolthare)
Shri Vetal (Aajgaon)
Shri. Balaji-Vyankatesh (Tirupati)
Vyadeshwar (Guhagar)
Vyghreshwar (Aasud)
 
     
  Gramdevata:  
 

Aamneshwar (Burambad),
Adityanath (Nevre),
Akari,
Amba (Kokistre and Dhamapur),
Annabhavana,
Badadev (Hodavade),
Bahiri (Nagav),
Bahirji,
Bardhini,
Bhagvati (Devli),
Bhairoba (Satara),
Bhargavram (Devabhe Gothane),
Bhavai (Naringre),
Bhavani (Tuljapur),
Bhumka (Ajagaon),
Bhutnath,
Brahmadev,
Chalai,
Chalkoba,
Choundeshwari,
Devi (Kadethan),
Dhopeshwar (Rajapur),
Dongaradevi (Dongar),
Durga (Vilaye),
Ganeshwar,
Gangeshwar (Naringre),
Gangobharadi (Bhivane),
Gavrakha, Ghodemukh,
Govarshaneshwar (Devache Gothane),
Harihareshwar (Hareshwar),
Hasaladevi (Devache Gothane),
Hedeshwar (Upale),
Jaanai,
Jaindev (Shivane),
Jaitvir (satarde),
Jakhai,
Jeevaneshwar (Shrivardhan),
Jogeshwari (Ambe),
Jokhai,
Jyotiba (Kolhapur),
Kalbhairav (Bamnoli),
Kaleshwar (Nerur),
Kalkai,
Kamadevi (Rajapur),
Kavalai (Tembhavali),
Khajanadevi (Pal),
Kshetrapal (Hodavade).
Laxmikeshav (Turvade),
Laxminaraya (Dhopeshwar),
Lingeshwar (Ilaye),
Mahakali (Adivare),
Mahalaxmi (Kelshi),
Mahalaxmi (Kolhapur),
Mahalaxmi (Mandre),
Mahapurush,
Mahavishnu (Kurdhe),
Mallikarjun,
Mauli (Redi),
Munjoba,
Nagdev (Shivane),
Navlai,
Ninadevi (Rajapur),
Pachachi Purva,
Pavnai,
Purvapari,
Purvas,
Rameshwar (Hindale),
Rameshwar (Naringre)
Rameshwar (Vengurle),
Rameshwar (Vilaye),
Ramling (Tudaye-Goa),
Ravalnath (Aajgaon),
Sagareshwar (Devrate),
Sarveshwar (Aajgaon),
Sarveshwar (Kurdhe),
Sateri (Tulas),
Satyeshwar (Aadivare),
Shambhumahadev,
Shantadurga,
Siddhewar (Solapur),
Siddhewar (Surle-Goa),
Someshwar (Shirgaon),
Sthaneshwar,
Sthanpurush,
Vaghjai,
Varadayi,
Veerbhadreshwar (Pural),
Vetal (Aajgaon),
Vishweshwar (Dongar)
Vyadeshwar (Guhagar),
Vyaghreshwar (Aasud),
 

 
 
Aamneshwar (Burambad)
Adityanath (Nevre)
Akari
Amba (Kokistre and Dhamapur)
Annabhavana
Badadev (Hodavade)
Bahiri (Nagav)
Bahirji
Bardhini
Bhagvati (Devli)
Bhairoba (Satara)
Bhargavram (Devabhe Gothane)
Bhavai (Naringre)
Bhavani (Tuljapur)
Bhumka (Ajagaon)
Bhutnath
Brahmadev
Chalai
Chalkoba
Choundeshwari
Devi (Kadethan)
Dhopeshwar (Rajapur)
Dongaradevi (Dongar)
Durga (Vilaye)
Ganeshwar
Gangeshwar (Naringre)
Gangobharadi (Bhivane)
Gavrakha
Ghodemukh
Govarshaneshwar (Devache Gothane)
Harihareshwar (Hareshwar)
Hasaladevi (Devache Gothane)
Hedeshwar (Upale)
Jaanai
Jaindev (Shivane)
Jaitvir (satarde)
Jakhai
Jeevaneshwar (Shrivardhan)
Jogeshwari (Ambe)
Jokhai
Jyotiba (Kolhapur)
Kalbhairav (Bamnoli)
Kaleshwar (Nerur)
Kalkai
Kamadevi (Rajapur)
Kavalai (Tembhavali)
Khajanadevi (Pal)
Kshetrapal (Hodavade)
Laxmikeshav (Turvade)
Laxminaraya (Dhopeshwar)
Lingeshwar (Ilaye)
Mahakali (Adivare)
Mahalaxmi (Kelshi)
Mahalaxmi (Kolhapur)
Mahalaxmi (Mandre)
Mahapurush
Mahavishnu (Kurdhe)
Mallikarjun
Mauli (Redi)
Munjoba
Nagdev (Shivane)
Navlai
Ninadevi (Rajapur)
Pachachi Purva
Pavnai
Purvapari
Purvas
Rameshwar (Hindale)
Rameshwar (Naringre)
Rameshwar (Vengurle)
Rameshwar (Vilaye)
Ramling (Tudaye-Goa)
Ravalnath (Aajgaon)
Sagareshwar (Devrate)
Sarveshwar (Aajgaon)
Sarveshwar (Kurdhe)
Sateri (Tulas)
Satyeshwar (Aadivare)
Shambhumahadev
Shantadurga
Siddhewar (Solapur)
Siddhewar (Surle-Goa)
Someshwar (Shirgaon)
Sthaneshwar
Sthanpurush
Vaghjai
Varadayi
Veerbhadreshwar (Pural)
Vetal (Aajgaon)
Vishweshwar (Dongar)
Vyadeshwar (Guhagar)
Vyaghreshwar (Aasud)
 
     
 
     
     
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